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concept of ethnobotany

The term is not new even to India, Kirtikar and Basu (1935) stated”, The ancient Hindus should be given the credit for cultivating what is … It has been established that up to 25% of the drugs prescribed in conventional medicine are related directly or indirectly to naturally occurring substances mostly of plant origin. In addition to offering nutritional value and the potential for development of new drugs, plants also offer extensive phytonutrients that provide health benefits. Thus ethnobotany and economic botany can be considered synonymous. It is also not restricted to the study of medicinal plants by indigenous cultures. h�b```a``�c`b`���ǀ |�@����Р��0��i��0X@4��E��Z��5u730�>�b��6TiF �bN���>�0@� i In general, ethnobotany focuses on the role of plants in traditional cultures rather than in modern societies. Michael J Balick, ... Leopoldo Romero, in Advances in Phytomedicine, 2002. (1985) and Kunstadter’s (1978) detailed depiction of traditional village agriculture in northern Thailand. Ethnobotany is the study of the interrelationship between people and plants, historically and cross-culturally, particularly the role of plants in human culture and practices, how humans have used and modified plants, and how they represent them in their systems of knowledge. … endstream endobj 18 0 obj <> endobj 19 0 obj <> endobj 20 0 obj <>stream It lies – epistemologically, theoretically, and methodologically – between the social and the natural sciences, and draws upon qualitative and quantitative research methods. A potentially valuable standard system for recording traditional uses for plants in their indigenous cultural context, an activity sometimes termed economic botany, has been developed by Cook (1995). Botany includes all the wild plants and the domesticated species. Reasons such as these have necessitated the application of techniques in botany, chemistry, molecular biology along with pharmacology, toxicology and clinical medicine to drug development from ethnobotany. Rather than implement a DC program without the data described under Sections II,A and II,B available for guidance, it may be prudent to conduct a rapid assessment (see Section II,C) to generate at least some guideposts for optimizing progress. The main goal of the project has been to conduct an inventory of the ethnobotanical diversity of Belize, a country with significant tracts of intact forest. For example, Boster’s (1984) study indicated that a traditional culture’s taxonomy for manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars resolved many more different biotypes than did the scientific classification for this crop and corresponded to manioc’s role as a staple of this people’s diets. The BEP involves the cataloging of traditional knowledge provided by dozens of traditional healers and bushmasters of Mopan, Yucatec, and Kekchi Maya, Ladino, Garifuna, Creole, East Indian, and Mennonite descent. Current trends are now focusing on traditional and herbal medicine worldwide but, despite the recent increase in the study of ethnobotany, there are as yet no introductory texts to this exciting area of plant biology. But the underlying process that has led to the creation of these two databases and their chief objectives are not very different. Folk names and taxonomies provide clues to particular plants’ relative importance to specific human cultures. Although we use the terms “traditional agriculture” and “traditional people” consistently throughout this review, we are not implying human socioeconomic homogeneity by these semantic conventions. Billions of people in the world rely chiefly on herbal medicines. The Native American Ethnobotany database at the University of Michigan (http://herb.umd.umich.edu/) provides an online searchable database of foods, drugs, dyes, and fibers of Native North American peoples. The survey further showed that communities have a wide knowledge of medicinal plants for malaria fever, followed by children and pregnant women’s ailments. Retention of traditional languages and folk traditions may indicate that a particular site is potentially well suited for a DC program, but this is not always the case (Brush, 1995). Many of today's drugs have been derived from plant sources. HOLMSTEDT 320 Ethnopharmacology—A Challenge BOR. The term ethnobotany was first used by the American botanist Dr. John William Hershberger, in 1895 during a lecture in Philadelphia to describe his research, which he described as the study of "plants produced by primitive and indigenous peoples". The Plants for a Future Database (Ethnobotany, including medicinal and edible plant species at http://www.pfaf.org/database/index.php) at Leeds University, with over 7000 species represented. The correspondence between scientific and traditional plant taxonomies may provide one measure for the taxonomic acuity of local people, of plant taxonomists trained scientifically, and of the potential for traditional people to maintain PGRs via DC. Ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery by providing leads to: Direct drug substances first isolated from nature as with reserpine6 and eserine.7,8. The traditional Indian medicines databases contain online pharmacopoeia of ayurveda, unani, and siddha (http://indianmedicine.nic.in/welcome.html) medicines. Table 37. The limitations of herbal drugs derived from ethnobotany revolve around standardization, quality control, dosage and the common tendency to describe diseases and ailments vaguely. %PDF-1.5 %���� The coconut is mentioned in the legends, myths, and stories of the ancient texts, scriptures, and oral traditions of the peoples of South and Southeast Asia and Oceania from time immemorial. When descriptions of human uses of PGRs and relevant production and processing technologies are interwoven with documentation of religious beliefs and other human cultural factors, economic botany and ethnobotany may intergrade as in Hernández X. Users can search by plant, chemistry, biological activity, or ethnomedical use. Discordance between traditional and scientific taxonomies may serve as an index for the comparative importance of particular plants in traditional societies and provide clues regarding former or nonobvious uses of certain plants. These results have arisen in spite of the several known limitations of ethnobotany and the usually associated ethnomedicine. Overview. Ethnobotany has now emerged as a discipline by itself that studies all types of interrelations between people and plants. From: Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, 2004, Maurice M Iwu, in Advances in Phytomedicine, 2002, Ethnobotany is the study of interrelations between humans and plants; however, current use of the term implies the study of indigenous or traditional knowledge of plants. Ethnobiology definition is - the interdisciplinary study of how human cultures interact with and use their native plants and animals. A study was also carried out by the FRIN on ethnobotany of Okomu Forest Reserve. Raw materials for drug synthesis: Diosgenin from Dioscorea composita Hemsl. Traditional folk names and classification may provide important clues for generally unrecognized economic uses for plants (e.g., Bretting, 1984). They are especially mentioned in the scriptures and ancient texts of the two dominant religions of Asia, viz., Hinduism and Buddhism, and in Oceania before they were converted to Christianity after the occupation of the European powers in the early 16th century. This term was first coined by the American botanist Dr. John … (NYBG) and US National Herbarium. Botany, in turn, originated in part from an interest in finding plants to help fight illness. Although most of the early ethnobotanists studied plant used in cultures other than their own, the term ethnobotany does not necessarily mean the study of how ‘other’ people use plants. Ethnobotany studies the complex relationships between (uses of) plants and cultures. This chapter looks at the main dietary phytonutrients and some of their main sources in brief. Ethnobotany1, the study of the relationship between people and plants, straddles a significant divide in the realm of scientific inquiry. In recent years, the increasing demand for herbal medicines in industrialized countries is being fueled by a growing consumer interest in natural products. Our two-decade study of fresh food markets showed impressive crop-consistency across space (Puerto Rico to Connecticut, Vietnam to Australia and to the USA) and time (1993–2015). Researchers approach the discipline from two perspectives -- the practical and the theoretical. The phytochemical and ethnobotanical databases (http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/) compiled by Jim Duke and maintained by the Agricultural Research Service, USDA. HOLMSTEDT AND JAN G. BRUHN 338 Amazonian Psychoactive Indoles: A Review JAN-ERIK LINDGREN 343 Biodynamic … It involves the indigenous knowledge of plant classification, cultivation, and use as food, medicine and shelter. Natural products from plants, microbes and animals contribute to about half of the pharmaceuticals in use today.3,4 Farnsworth5 has shown that 119 drugs of known chemicals in medical use arose from less than 90 plant species. The discipline employs cutting-edge scientific methods, strives to integrate Western and non-Western knowledge in effective and respectful ways, and situates plant use within a host of larger social, economic, and ecological systems, both in the past and in the Just recently, artemisinin, an antimalarial, has been developed from the Chinese herbal medicine Quinghaosu.2. Ethno-science is a term used to encompass studies describe local people’s interaction with the natural surroundings. Quinine9 and chloroquine10 illustrate this point. If weeds are just plants out of place and are properly regarded as useless by humans, is it possible they could also be useful? Regarding folkloric food consumption patterns, “treatment” and “prevention” concepts are greatly intertwined when we are referring to dietary herbs. When developing plans for DC of pecans, Grauke et al. Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people (Balick and Cox, 1996). The high rate of malaria sickness was probably due to their nearness to the forest that harbors a lot of mosquitoes. Plants were collected from the PSP of FRIN, fallow farmland, and agroforestry plots, that is, in areas where research and investigations were also carried out on plant biodiversity. Ethnobotany lets you explore local culture and history while gathering practical knowledge of the surrounding landscape. Ideal for anyone wanting to understand the most basic concepts of ethnobotany; see more benefits. UNESCO 2002. It includes study of the uses of plants by humans and the relationship between humans and vegetation. It involves the indigenous knowledge of plant classification, cultivation, and use as food, medicine and shelter. James G. Graham, Norman R. Farnsworth, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010. The Concepts of Ethnobotany and Ethno-Veterinary Medicine Ethnobotany (Combination of "ethnology" - study of culture, and "botany" - study of plants) The scientific study of the relationship between people and plants, that is, how people of a particular culture and region make use of indigenous plants, is termed ethno botany (Mathias, 2004). In addition to nutritious herbal foods, traditional medicinal foods are made from dietary plants that can be used either as a single, or combined herbal formulation in various processed forms and preparations. Some examples are aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) originally derived from the willow tree, Salix spp. Drug substances that have low desirable biological activities or have desired drug activities but with undesirable side-effects. The conservation and management measures adopted so far have proved to be grossly inadequate. The success of some DC programs may depend on accurately categorizing farmers and agriculture according to these types. This work concentrates on the concept of ethnobotany, covering the history of interactions between plants and people. The traditional Chinese medicine information database, containing (http://tcm.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/tcm-id/tcmid_ns.asp) data on formulations, herbal composition, clinical indication, and application of TCM, along with relevant literature currently contains entries for 1197 formulae, 1098 medicinal herbs, and 9852 herbal ingredients. Around the world, different cultures have developed their own ethnobotany systems, making use of their indigenous plants based on long-term empirical observations. Has now emerged as a discipline by itself that studies all types of interrelations between people plants! 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